In this article we are going to find how many UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India in 2021, Which state has highest UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India ? with the help of the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India upsc.
The government had proposed Telangana’s Ramappa Temple as its sole nomination for the UNESCO World Heritage Site tag for the year 2019. On July 25, 2021, at the 44th session of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, it was decided to include the Kakatiya Rudreshwar Temple (Rampappa Temple) in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India.
UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India -:
UNESCO ( United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ) is a agency of the United Nations, founded in 1945. UNESCO’s headquarter is situated in Paris, France. It is made for the promotion of international collaboration in science, education and culture.
A World Heritage Site is a place that is recognized by the UNESCO as of distinctive cultural or physical importance which is considered of outstanding value to humanity. The list of World Heritage Sites is maintained by the World Heritage Programme, administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee. UNESCO strives to encourage the identification, protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world. This is exemplified the Convention regarding the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, accepted by UNESCO in 1972.
For a property to be included on the UNESCO World Heritage Sites List, sites must be of outstanding universal value and meet at least one out of ten selection criteria.
- To represent a masterpiece of human creative genius.
- To exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design.
- To bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared.
- To be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history.
- To be an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change.
- To be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance.
- to contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance.
- To be outstanding examples representing major stages of earth’s history, including the record of life, significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms or significant geomorphic or physiographic features.
- To be outstanding examples representing significant on-going ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems and communities of plants and animals.
- To contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation.
There are total 39 UNESCO world heritage sites in India out of which 31 are cultural heritage sites in India, 7 are natural heritage sites in India and 1 is mixed heritage sites in India.
List of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India 2021 -:
|S. No.||UNESCO world heritages sites in India||Year||State|
|1.||Agra Fort||1983||Uttar Pradesh|
|4.||Taj Mahal||1983||Uttar Pradesh|
|5.||Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram||1984||Tamil Nadu|
|6.||Sun Temple, Konarak||1984||Orissa|
|7.||Manas Wildlife Sanctuary ( Natural World Heritage Site )||1985||Assam|
|8.||Keoladeo Ghana National Park ( Natural World Heritage Site )||1985||Rajasthan|
|9.||Kaziranga National Park ( Natural World Heritage Site )||1985||Assam|
|10.||Churches and Convents of Goa||1986||Goa|
|11.||Fatehpur Sikri||1986||Uttar Pradesh|
|12.||Group of Monuments at Hampi||1986||Karnataka|
|13.||Group of Monuments at Khajuraho||1986||Madhya Pradesh|
|15.||Group of Monuments at Pattadakal||1987||Karnataka|
|16.||Great Living Chola Temples||1987, 2004||Tamil Nadu|
|17.||Sundarbans National Park ( Natural World Heritage Site )||1987||West Bengal|
|18.||Nanda Devi National Park and Valley of Flowers ( Natural World Heritage Site )||1988, 2005||Uttarakhand|
|19.||Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi||1989||Madhya Pradesh|
|21.||Qutub Minar and its Monuments||1993||Delhi|
|22.||Mountain Railways of India ( Darjeeling, Nilgiri, Shimla )||1999, 2005, 2008||West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh|
|23.||Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya||2002||Bihar|
|24.||Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka||2003||Madhya Pradesh|
|25.||Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park||2004||Gujarat|
|26.||Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus||2004||Maharashtra|
|27.||Red Fort Complex||2007||Delhi|
|28.||The Jantar Mantar||2010||Rajasthan|
|29.||Western Ghats ( Natural World Heritage Site )||2012||Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala|
|30.||Hill Forts of Rajasthan||2013||Rajasthan|
|31.||Rani-Ki-Van ( Queen’s Stepwell ) at Patan||2014||Gujarat|
|32.||Great Himalayan National Park ( Natural World Heritage Site )||2014||Himachal Pradesh|
|33.||Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara ( Nalanda University )||2016||Bihar|
|34.||Kanchenjunga National Park ( Mixed Word Heritage Site )||2016||Sikkim|
|35.||The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement||2016||Chandigarh|
|36.||Historic City of Ahmedabad||2017||Gujarat|
|37.||Victorian and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai||2018||Maharashtra|
|39.||Kakatiya Rudreshwar Temple (Rampappa Temple)||2021||Telangana|
UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Madhya pradesh -:
Khajuraho Group of Monuments -:
These monuments belongs to Chandela Dynasty. These temples were built between 900 and 1130. Khajuraho temples belong to two religions – Hinduism and Jainism.
Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi -:
These Buddhist monuments are situated in Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh. It is considered one of the oldest Buddhist Sanctuary. The Great Stupa at Sanchi was originally built by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka.
Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka -:
Dr Vishnu Shridhar Wakankar had discovered the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka in 1958. These Bhimbetka rock caves exhibit one of the earliest traces of human life in India.
UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Uttar Pradesh -:
Agra Fort -:
The Red Fort of Agra is the 16th Century Mughal Monument. Agra Fort is the first UNESCO world heritage sites in India.
Taj Mahal -:
Taj Mahal is built by the Mughal emperor, Shahjahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. It is situated on the banks of the river Yamuna in Agra, Uttar Pradesh.
Fatehpur Sikri -:
Fatehpur Sikri was built in 16th century near Agra, Uttar Pradesh by Emperor Akbar. Fatehpur Sikri means The City of Victory were the capital of the Mughal empire for some time.
UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Rajasthan -:
Keoladeo National Park -:
Keoladeo National Park is located in Bharatpur, Rajasthan. It is also known as Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary.
Hill Forts of Rajasthan -:
This world heritage site include 6 major Hill Forts of Rajasthan. These forts are Chittorgarh Fort, Kumbhalgarh Fort, Ranthambore Fort, Gagron Fort, Amer Fort and Jaisalmer Fort.
Jantar Mantar -:
In 18th century King Sawai Jai Singh II built Jantar Mantar in Jaipur, Rajasthan. It is designed to observe astronomical positions with the naked eye.
Jaipur City -:
The walled city of Jaipur was founded in 1727 by the King Sawai Jai Singh II.
UNESCO world heritage sites in Maharastra -:
Ajanta Caves -:
Ajanta Caves is a series of rock-cut caves in the Western Ghats near Aurangabad in Maharashtra. These caves were developed between 200 B.C. and 650 A.D. There are 29 caves. All caves belongs to the Buddhist. 25 caves were used as Viharas or residential caves while 4 caves were used as Chaitya or prayer halls.
Ellora Caves -:
Ellora Caves are also located in the Western Ghats near Aurangabad in Maharashtra. These caves were developed between 5th and 11th centuries A.D. There are 34 caves – 17 Brahmanical, 12 Buddhist and 5 Jain.
Elephanta Caves -:
Elephanta Caves are Located at Elephanta island or island of Gharapuri near Mumbai in Maharashtra. These caves were developed between 5th and 6th centuries AD. There are total seven caves.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus -:
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus was formerly known as Victoria Terminus. It was built in 1887 with Victorian Gothic Revival architecture based design in Mumbai.
Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai -:
Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai includes a collection of public buildings in Mumbai designed in Victorian Neo-Gothic style and Art Deco style.
UNESCO world heritage sites in Delhi -:
Humayun’s Tomb -:
Humayun’s Tomb was built in 1570. It was the first garden-tomb in India.
Qutub Minar and its Monuments -:
Qutub Minar was built in 13th century, in Delhi. Qutb-ud-din Aibak started construction of the Qutub Minar in 1199.
Red Fort Complex -:
Red Fort was built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. Salimgarh Fort is also a part of this Red Fort complex.
UNESCO world heritage sites in Gujarat -:
Champaner – Pavagadh Archaeological Park -:
Champaner – Pavagadh was built between 8th and 14th centuries. It remains of the 16th century capital of the Gujarat.
Rani-ki-Vav ( The Queen’s Stepwell ) -:
Rani-ki-Vav Situated on the banks of Saraswati river in Patan, Gujarat. The Queen’s Stepwell is built in Maru-Gurjara architectural style.
Historic City of Ahmadabad -:
Sultan Ahmad Shah founded the city in the 15th Century on the eastern bank of Sabarmati river.
Other UNESCO world heritage sites in India -:
Mahabodhi Temple Complex -:
Mahabodhi Temple was built by Emperor Asoka at Bodhgaya, Bihar. It is one of the four holy sites related to the Buddha’s life.
Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara -:
Nalanda Mahavihara is the most ancient university in India. It is situated at Nalanda,Bihar.
Group of Monuments at Hampi -:
Hampi was the last capital of the kingdom of Vijaynagar. It is situated in Karnataka. These temples and palaces were built by rulers of Vijaynagar between the 14th and 16th centuries.
Group of Monuments at Pattadakal -:
Monuments at Pattadakal are situated on the banks of the river Malprabha in Karnataka. These monuments represent the Chalukyan art.
Manas Wildlife Sanctuary -:
Manas Wildlife Sanctuary is a biodiversity hotspot located in Assam. Manas Wildlife Sanctuary is known for its rare and endangered endemic wildlife such as the Assam roofed turtle, hispid hare, golden langur and pygmy hog.
Kaziranga National Park -:
Kaziranga National Park is located in Assam. It was declared as a National Park in 1974. Kaziranga National Park is famous for one-horned rhinos.
Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram -:
Mahabalipuram is situated at Kanchipuram, Tamilnadu. Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram was founded by Pallava kings in the 7th and 8th centuries.
Great Living Chola Temples -:
Great Chola Temples was built by kings of the Chola empire between 11th and 12th century, It is located in Tamilnadu state. Great Living Chola Temples includes three temples – Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur, Brihadisvara Temple at Gangaikondacholisvaram and Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram.
Sun Temple -:
King Narasimhadeva I built Sun Temple in the 13th Century. Sun Temple is located in Konark, Odisha. Sun Temple represents the Kalinga architecture.
Churches and Convents of Goa -:
Churches and Convents of Goa was developed under the Portuguese.
Sundarbans National Park -:
Sundarbans National Park is a national park, tiger reserve and biosphere reserve in West Bengal, India. The Sundarbans mangrove forest lies across India and Bangladesh on the delta of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers on the Bay of Bengal.
Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks -:
Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks are located in Uttarakhand.
Mountain Railways of India -:
Mountain Railways of India includes three railways – Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, Nilgiri Mountain Railway and Kalka Shimla Railway.
Western Ghats -:
Western Ghats consist of a chain of mountains running parallel to India’s Western Coast and passing from the states of Kerala, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Goa, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
Great Himalayan National Park -:
Great Himalayan National Park is located in Himalayan mountains of Himachal Pradesh. This national park is known for its high alpine peaks, alpine meadows and riverine forests.
Kanchenjunga National Park -:
Kanchenjunga National Park is in Sikkim. It is the one and only mixed UNESCO world heritage sites in India.
The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier -:
The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier includes 17 sites on three continents. Complexe du Capitole in Chandigarh, India is a part of this site. It is called as an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement.
Kakatiya Rudreshwar Temple -:
The Kakatiya Rudreshwar Temple of Telangana has been included in the list of World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2021. Built on a six feet high star-like platform, this temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva. Ramalingeshwara Swamy is mainly worshiped in this temple. This temple is a unique specimen of ancient architectural craft built on thousand pillars. It was built in the 13th century. It was built by the craftsman Ramappa after 40 years of tireless effort. That is why this 800 year old temple is also known as Ramappa Temple. Marco Polo called this temple built during the Kakatiya dynasty as the brightest star among all the temples.
How many UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India in 2021 ?
There are total 39 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India in 2021.
Which state has highest UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India ?
Maharashtra ( 5 World Heritage Sites )
Which site is the first UNESCO world heritage sites in India?
Agra Fort ( 1983 )
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